martedì 25 settembre 2012

Lady Godiva

Jules Joseph Lefebvre (1836–1911) - "Lady Godiva" - About 1890 - Oil on canvas - Musée de Picardie, Amiens – France

John Maler Collier (1850–1934) - "Lady Godiva" - Oil on canvas - 142.2 x 183 cm - About 1898 - Herbert Art Gallery & Museum, Coventry, UK

John Thomas (1813 - 1862) - "Lady Godiva" - Location: Maidstone Museum & Bentlif Art Gallery is in Maidstone, Kent, England

Godiva (Old English: Godgifu, "god gift"), often referred to as Lady Godiva, was an 11th-century Anglo-Saxon noblewoman who, according to legend, rode naked through the streets of Coventry in order to gain a remission of the oppressive taxation imposed by her husband on his tenants. The name "Peeping Tom" for a voyeur originates from later versions of this legend in which a man named Tom had watched her ride and was struck blind or dead.

Lady Godiva was the wife of Leofric, Earl of Mercia. They had one proved son Aelfgar, Earl of Mercia.

Lady Godiva's name occurs in charters and the Domesday survey, though the spelling varies. The Old English name Godgifu or Godgyfu meant "gift of God"; Godiva was the Latinised version. Since the name was a popular one, there are contemporaries of the same name.

If she were the same Godiva who appears in the history of Ely Abbey, the Liber Eliensis, written at the end of the 12th century, then she was a widow when Leofric married her. Both Leofric and Godiva were generous benefactors to religious houses. In 1043 Leofric founded and endowed a Benedictine monastery at Coventry on the site of a nunnery destroyed by the Danes in 1016. Writing in the 12th century, Roger of Wendover credits Godiva as the persuasive force behind this act. In the 1050s, her name is coupled with that of her husband on a grant of land to the monastery of St Mary, Worcester and the endowment of the minster at Stow St Mary, Lincolnshire. She and her husband are commemorated as benefactors of other monasteries at Leominster, Chester, Much Wenlock and Evesham.

She gave Coventry a number of works in precious metal made for the purpose by the famous goldsmith Mannig, and bequeathed a necklace valued at 100 marks of silver. Another necklace went to Evesham, to be hung around the figure of the Virgin accompanying the life-size gold and silver rood she and her husband gave, and St Paul's Cathedral, London received a gold-fringed chasuble. She and her husband were among the most munificent of the several large Anglo-Saxon donors of the last decades before the Conquest; the early Norman bishops made short work of their gifts, carrying them off to Normandy or melting them down for bullion.

The manor of Woolhope in Herefordshire, along with four others, was given to the cathedral at Hereford before the Norman Conquest by the benefactresses Wulviva and Godiva – usually held to be this Godiva and her sister. The church there has a 20th-century stained glass window representing them.

Her mark, di Ego Godiva Comitissa diu istud desideravi, The Countess Godiva, have desired this for a long time], appears on a charter purportedly given by Thorold of Bucknall to the Benedictine monastery of Spalding. However, this charter is considered spurious by many historians. Even so it is possible that Thorold, who appears in the Domesday Book as sheriff of Lincolnshire, was her brother.

After Leofric's death in 1057, his widow lived on until sometime between the Norman Conquest of 1066 and 1086. She is mentioned in the Domesday survey as one of the few Anglo-Saxons and the only woman to remain a major landholder shortly after the conquest. By the time of this great survey in 1086, Godiva had died, but her former lands are listed, although now held by others. Thus, Godiva apparently died between 1066 and 1086.

The place where Godiva was buried has been a matter of debate. According to the Chronicon Abbatiae de Evesham, or Evesham Chronicle, she was buried at the Church of the Blessed Trinity at Evesham, which is no longer standing. According to the account in the Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, "There is no reason to doubt that she was buried with her husband at Coventry, despite the assertion of the Evesham chronicle that she lay in Holy Trinity, Evesham."

Dugdale (1656) says that a window with representations of Leofric and Godiva was placed in Trinity Church, Coventry, about the time of Richard II.

According to the popular story, Lady Godiva took pity on the people of Coventry, who were suffering grievously under her husband's oppressive taxation. Lady Godiva appealed again and again to her husband, who obstinately refused to remit the tolls. At last, weary of her entreaties, he said he would grant her request if she would strip naked and ride through the streets of the town. Lady Godiva took him at his word and, after issuing a proclamation that all persons should stay indoors and shut their windows, she rode through the town, clothed only in her long hair. Just one person in the town, a tailor ever afterwards known as Peeping Tom, disobeyed her proclamation in one of the most famous instances of voyeurism.

In the story, Tom bores a hole in his shutters so that he might see Godiva pass, and is struck blind. In the end, Godiva's husband keeps his word and abolishes the onerous taxes.

Some historians have discerned elements of Pagan fertility rituals in the Godiva story whereby a young "May Queen" was led to the sacred Cofa's tree perhaps to celebrate the renewal of spring The oldest form of the legend has Godiva passing through Coventry market from one end to the other while the people were assembled, attended only by two knights.

This version is given in Flores Historiarum by Roger of Wendover (died 1236), a somewhat gullible collector of anecdotes, who quoted from unnamed earlier writers.

At the time, it was customary for penitents to make a public procession in their shift, a sleeveless white garment similar to a slip today and one which was certainly considered "underwear". Thus, some scholars speculate, Godiva might have actually travelled through town as a penitent, in her shift. Godiva's story could have passed into folk history to be recorded in a romanticised version. Another theory has it that Lady Godiva's "nakedness" might refer to her riding through the streets stripped of her jewellery, the trademark of her upper class rank. However, both of these attempts to reconcile known facts with legend are weak; in the era of the earliest accounts, the word "naked" is only known to mean "without any clothing whatsoever".

A modified version of the story was given by printer Richard Grafton, later elected MP for Coventry. According to his Chronicle of England (1569), "Leofricus" had already exempted the people of Coventry from "any maner of Tolle, Except onely of Horsse (sic.)", so that Godiva ("Godina" in text) had agreed to the naked ride just to win relief for this horse tax. And as a pre-condition, she required the officials of Coventry to forbid the populace "upon a great pain" from watching her, and to shut themselves in and shutter all windows on the day of her ride. Grafton was an ardent Protestant and sanitized the earlier story.

The ballad "Leoffricus" in the Percy Folio (ca. 1650) conforms to Grafton's version, saying that Lady "Godiua" performed her ride to remove the customs paid on horses, and that the town's officers ordered the townsfolk to "shutt their dore, & clap their windowes downe," and remain indoors on the day of her ride.

The later embellished episode of "Peeping Tom", who alone among the townsfolk peeked at the Lady Godiva riding naked, probably did not originate in literature, but came up through popular lore in the locality of Coventry. Reference by 17th-century chroniclers has been claimed, but in the following all published accounts are 18th-century or later.

According to an 1826 article submitted by a person well-versed in local history identifying himself as W. Reader, there was already a well-established tradition before his time that there was a certain tailor who had taken a peek at Lady Godiva, and that at the annual Trinity Great Fair (now called the Godiva Festival) featuring the Godiva processions "a grotesque figure called Peeping Tom" would be set on display, and it was a wooden statue carved from oak. The author has dated this effigy, based on the style of armor he is shown wearing, from the reign of Charles II(d. 1685). The same writer felt the peeper legend had to postdate William Dugdale (d. 1686) since antiquary made no mention in his huge tomes that discussed Coventry in extenso.[30] (It should be noted that the lore about the tailor as peeper and the use of wooden effigy may be as old as the 17th century, but the effigy may not have always been called "Tom". See 1773 date below, and the alternate suggested name "Action".)

W. Reader dates the first Godiva procession to 1677,[31] but other sources date the first parade to 1678, and on that year a lad from the household of James Swinnerton enacted the role of Lady Godiva.

Regarding the track record of Godiva's peeper as recorded in published writings, the English Dictionary of National Biography gives a meticulous account. The historian Paul de Rapin (1732) reported the Coventry lore that Lady Godiva performed her ride while "commanding all Persons to keep within Doors and from their Windows, on pain of Death" but one man could not refrain from looking and it "cost him his life"; Rapin further reported that the town commemorates this with a "Statue of a Man looking out of a Window."

Next, Thomas Pennant in Journey from Chester to London (1782) recounted how "the curiousity of a certain taylor overcoming his fear, he took a single peep". Pennant noted that the person enacting Godiva in the procession was not fully naked of course, but wore "silk, closely fitted to her limbs", which had a color resembling the skin's complexion. The oldest document that mentions "Peeping Tom" by name is a record in Coventry's official annals, dating to June 11, 1773, documenting that the city issued a new wig and paint for the wooden effigy. There is further description given on the Godiva procession under the sub-article Lady Godiva in popular culture.

There is also said to be a letter from pre-1700, stating that peeper was actually Action, Lady Godiva's groom.

Additional legend proclaims that Peeping Tom was later struck blind as heavenly punishment, or that the townspeople took the matter in their own hands and blinded him.

The Peeping Tom story is absent in the few sources contemporary with Godiva. It has been pointed out that Tom (Thomas) is not an Anglo-Saxon name, and therefore hardly likely to be a name of a townsperson governed by Leoffric. Coventry was still a small settlement, with only 69 families (and the monastery) recorded in the Domesday Book some decades later. Lastly, the only recorded tolls were on horses. Thus, it remains doubtful whether there is any historical basis for the famous ride.

The story is particularly doubtful since Countess Godiva would herself have been responsible for setting taxation in Coventry; Salic law, which excluded females from the inheritance of a throne or fief, did not applying in Anglo-Saxon society. If only because of the nudity in the story, its popularity has been maintained, and spread internationally, with many references in modern popular culture.

lunedì 24 settembre 2012

Aleksey Tchernigin

 "HE & SHE" - Oil on canvas - 70x90 cm - 2012

 "MORNING IN PRAGUE" - Oil on canvas - 89x90 cm - 2012

 "Milk" - Oil on canvas - 70x80 cm - 2011

 "Return" - Oil on canvas - 70x80 cm - 2011

 "Seaside" - Oil on canvas - 70x80 cm - 2011

 "April Sun" - Oil on canvas - 60x70 cm - 2011

 "Evening" - Oil on canvas - 50x70 cm - 2011

 "Old Wall" - Oil on canvas - 50x60 cm - 2010

 "Wind from the River" - Oil on canvas - 60x80 cm - 2011

 "Mellow Grapes" - Oil on canvas - 70x90 cm - 2010

 "September" - Oil on canvas - 50x60 cm - 2010

 "Wave" - Oil on canvas - 70x90 cm - 2010

 "Falling to Venice" - Oil on canvas - 80x90 cm - 2010

 "Shower" - Oil on canvas - 80x90 cm - 2010

 "Removing the Mask" - Oil on canvas - 70x70 cm - 2002

 "Walk in Venice" - Oil on canvas - 50x60 cm - 2007

 "Pragur Cafè" - Oil on canvas - 60x80 cm - 2007

 "Rialto Bridge" - Oil on canvas - 50x60 cm - 2006

 "View of Cape Customs" - Oil on canvas - 50x70 cm - 2008

 "Siesta" - Oil on canvas - 70x90 cm - 2009

 "Silence" - Oil on canvas - 50x60 cm - 2005

 "Venetian Lagoon" - Oil on canvas - 60x80 cm - 2008

 "Buon Giorno Antonio !" - Oil on canvas - 70x80 cm - 2009

 "Amsterdam" - Oil on canvas - 70x80 cm - 2009

 "Reflection" - Oil on canvas - 50x60 cm - 2008

 "At Dawn" - Oil on canvas - 40x50 cm - 2007

 "Music of Silence" - Oil on canvas - 70x70 cm - 2001

 "A Couple More !" - Oil on canvas - 80x90 cm - 2009

 "View of the Grand Canal" - Oil on canvas - 50x70 cm - 2007

 "Venetian canal" - Oil on canvas - 60x60 cm - 2006

 "Summer" - Oil on canvas - 80x90 cm - 2007

 "Rain in Venice" - Oil on canvas - 50x60 cm - 2007

 "Two in the City" - Oil on canvas - 80x90 cm - 2006

 "Cross Roads" - Oil on canvas - 80x90 cm - 2005

"Spring" - Oil on canvas - 60x80 cm - 2006

Aleksey Tchernigin (Nižnij Novgorod - Russian Federation, born 1975) 

Aleksey Tchernigin was born in 1975 in Nizhny Novgorod, Russian Federation.

Is a Russian painter, graphic and interior designer.

Is graduated from Art School and Nizhniy Novgorod State Architectural and Construction University in "Industrial Design".

Member of the Union of Artists Russian since 1998.

He participated in numerous solo and group exhibitions and contests in Russia.

His works are in private collections of Russia and abroad.

The female figure is at the center of the painting of Tchernigin. His paintings transmit energy, passion and beauty. Beautiful colors and lights, make the work of Tchernigin suffered unmistakable. Great talent Tchernigin, but very reserved and mysterious.

Serge Marshennikov

Serge Marshennikov (Ufa, Republic of Bashkiria, Bashkortostan - Russian Federation, born 1971) Paintings.

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© Copyright images property exclusive Serge Marshennikov.

Serge Marshennikov was born on 30 may 1971 in Ufa, Bashkiria - USSR.

Lives and works in St. Petersburg.

His grandfather was the general manager of a horse breeding company, his father, an electrical engineer and his mother was in pre-school education. Freom the earliest of times, Serge was always drawing, painting and sculpting from any material he could land his hands on. His Mother encouraged Serge to study and from early childhood and he had a succession of private teachers and art studies he attended. After receiving a number of awards for his children’s watercolor and pastel paintings, Serge decided to become a professional painter.

In 1995 he finished the Ufa Art College and then continued education at one of the most prestigious art academies in the world, The Repin Academy of Fine Art in St. Petersburg, Russia. As one of the most talented graduates of the academy, Serge was offered to stay for post-graduate studies at the studio of the Academician, Rector of the Academy, Professor Milnikov.

Serge’s first solo exhibition was in the gallery “Sangat” of his native UFA in 1995, the year of his graduation from the college. The show was a success and Serge was invited to exhibit at the Artists’ Union gallery. Since that time Serge has exhibited on a semi-annual basis, showing his works to his collectors and piers in both St Petersburg and Ufa. Serge’s graduation work caught the eye of a Brownwood University faculty member as well as Hardin-Simmons University. Serge, during his post-graduate years, also exhibited in the prestigious art departments of those Universities.

More recently, Serge’s paintings have been sold through important art auctions, including famous Christie’s of London and Bonham's in Knightsbridge. His work is in much demand and his prices are constantly rising. Serge’s paintings are held in the Museum of Modern Art (El Paso), in The Grace Museum (Abilene), and in many important private collections in Russia, England, Denmark, France and Japan.

Serge’s biggest influences are Andrew Wyeth & Lucian Freud. From more contemporary times, he likes works of Jeremy Lipking. Serge is married and has a 7 year old daughter.

Russian artist Serge Marshennikov's delicate original female oil portraits capture the hearts of collectors all over the globe.